Baseline Survey

Key Findings –

20,000 Orphans

13 Parishes

High Illiteracy Rates

Low Employment Rates

Low Access to Health Care

Low Access to Electricity

Low Access to Clean Water

 

Wakiso District Information

Geography

KACCAD offices are based in Bulenga, 7km from the centre of Kampala. Our work is carried out over the entire district of Wakiso, with a focus on the 13 parishes of Wakiso Sub-County. KACCAD also serves OVCs in Mpigi District. Being that our focus work area, the following information features Wakiso District. The Wakiso District is found in the central region of Uganda and covers an area of 2,705 square kilometres, most of which is characterised by high population density, poorly planned structures and high levels of poverty.The district is the red area highlighted on the Ugandan map.

Demography

According to the 2002 census, the total population of Wakiso is currently just under 1,000,000 people. With 3.7% of the entire population in Uganda, it is the second biggest district in the country.

Although only 7.7% of the population are classified as ‘urban’, the population density figures of over 500 people per square kilometres suggest that there is a significant semi-urban population.

Uganda has an incredibly young population, with over half of its inhabitants under the age of 18. In Wakiso, 17% of these children are orphans. To put this in ‘real’ terms, over 60,000 children in the district are living without one parent and over 20,000 children have lost both parents.

Population indicators Wakiso National Values
Total population (2002) 907,988 24,400,000
Population growth rate 4.1% 3.3%
Population density 545.3 ppl/km2 124 ppm/km2
Urban population 7.7% 12%
Household size 4.1 4.7
Population over 60 3.6% 4.5%
Population under 18 53% 56%
Orphaned children 17% 13%

HIV/AIDS is a major factor in the high rate of orphaned children. AIDS reduces life expectancy by an average of 11.5 years among adults: with AIDS 42.6 years and without 54.1. Among infants with AIDS the mortality rate is 92.9% nationally (Ministry of Health). HIV/AIDS and other life threatening diseases like malaria have made extended families commonplace in Wakiso. Often grandparents, aunts, uncles and older siblings look after many children due to the death of their parents. These families struggle to meet the needs of as many as 25 orphans sometimes without any source of income.

Current Government Initiatives

The government is aware of the need for more initiatives to improve the lives of its people. The local government of Wakiso has put 48 Functional Adult Literacy (FAL) classes in place. Though helpful, this number is far from reaching the need. So far, 1,076 students are enrolled. Females make up 80% of these students. Yet, once the training is completed it is the males who are most successful at gaining employment with their new skills. This is partly because of gender inequality and partly because of the emphasis placed on motherhood and maternal care of children by Ugandan culture. Further improvement is needed regarding gender attitudes, the provision of education, and the provision of vocational opportunities within the district.

The District is encouraging volunteerism amongst its communities in order to trigger development from the bottom up. KACCAD is an example of this volunteerism. It is run by members of the community for members of the community. With out adequate governmental and donor support KACCAD and other community based organizations (CBO) are struggling to meet the needs of their communities. In order for KACCAD and other CBOs/NGOs to successfully meet community needs the Ugandan government must help these acts of volunteerism by mobilising resources to allow them carry out their projects.

“[Uganda] is one of the poorest countries in the world… and because of that all of our needs cannot be met by the resources we have… The district tries its best to meet the needs of the people [but] we have a lot of need in terms of health improvement within the community. An unhealthy community cannot be an effective community. “What we need is sanitization and sensitisation. Most of our people, even those with money, are most affected by health because they lack sensitization… Of course, many people are fed up of sensitization programs that do not then provide the inputs… It is no good talking about how to breed the pigs and so on without providing them with a way of attaining a piglet.” Eng. Ian Kyeyune (Wakiso district chairman)

The government also recognises the profound need for education in the field of healthcare. In a policy meeting with the LCV Chairman of Wakiso District, Mr Ian Kyeyune we discussed the Community Healthcare Initiative (CHI). The CHI funds are used to provide treatment and also health education within the district, but, as explained by the Chairman, “unfortunately the money is simply no longer there.” Without governmental funding it becomes the role of the local NGOs and grassroots initiatives to provide healthcare sensitisation.

Aims

Before creating the survey, we formulated a list of objectives. By formulating a survey around this list of objectives, we were able to efficiently collect clear, concise and accurate data for the areas that are of importance to KACCAD’s mission.

The objectives for the survey were:

  1. To determine adult literacy levels in Wakiso District, including a breakdown based on age and distribution.
  2. To determine the level of impact of government intervention towards functional adult literacy and primary healthcare (PHC) in relation to HIV/AIDS.
  3. To determine the level of desire for further education among adults.
  4. To determine the drop-out rate and understand the main underlying factors.
  5. To determine the common income-generating activities (IGAs) practiced in the area.
  6. To determine the effects of adult literacy.
  7. To determine the limiting factors preventing further education among adults.
  8. To determine an appropriate curriculum to meet the needs of the people in the area.

The questions on the survey were directly related to the objectives listed above (see appendix 1)

Goal

To use the data collected to focus KACCAD’s direction in serving vulnerable community members. Questions guiding the survey included: Is KACCAD correctly focused in its mission and projects? Are we helping the most marginalised groups in the most effective way with the limited resources we have? What should we do in the future?

Methodology

Production of the survey

It was our intent to create a survey that would allow the residents of the area to express their views and opinions openly, honestly and without restriction, confusion or judgement. In order to comply with these aims we designed a survey that was based around open-ended questions where the interviewee was able to provide as long and detailed (or short and concise) answer as they deemed appropriate. There were no multiple choice questions, so they never had to ‘fit’ into any category. We did not issue a word or time limit on their answers, and although it was necessary to summarise their responses for the purposes of data analysis, we still have the full-length answers written down that we can use subjectively when formulating project proposals in the future. The interview took place in Luganda the local language in order to minimise any confusion, and was then translated into English. The wording of questions was kept as simple as possible.

Production of the Sample

Ssumbwe is the larger of the two parishes featured in the survey, with a total population of just over 10,000 people compared to approximately 8,000 in Nakabugo. We surveyed 165 people in Ssumbwe parish and 66 people in Nakabugo. Therefore, our sample population is 71% Ssumbwe parish and 29% Nakubugo Parish.

The following tables illustrate the levels of representation for a number of key groups in the district. You will notice a number of discrepancies and the reasons for these will be discussed.

Population sample by Parish
Ssumbwe Nakabugo
Total Population 10,145 7990
Total Sample Population 165 66
Percentage of population in sample 1.29% 0.82%

We interviewed a higher proportion of people in Ssumbwe for two reasons. Firstly, it was practicably easier, as the Local Council Chairmen had more time available. Secondly, as will be discussed later, Ssumbwe has an illiteracy rate twice as high as Nakabugo so KACCAD felt it warranted more attention.

Breakdown of interviewees by age and Parish
Age Ssumbwe Nakubugo
Under 18 8% 9%
18-30 38% 41%
31-40 21% 17%
41-50 19% 12%
51-60 9% 5%
61-70 3% 11%
71+ 4% 6%

The patterns in breakdown by age group are as you would expect, with most interviewees being in the 18-30 years old age range, and over 70% being between the ages of 18-50. The major anomaly is the 61-70 age range for Nakabugo. This occurred due to an overwhelming enthusiasm and interest in our work from the more aged members of that particular community.We did not feel it was appropriate to turn people away if they had something interesting to say.

Breakdown of interviewees by sex and Parish
Ssumbwe Nakubugo Total
Male Female Male Female Male Female
Total number asked 34 131 13 53 47 84
Proportions 21% 79% 20% 80% 20% 80%

In each Parish the vast majority of interviewees were women. There are a number of reasons for this, some of which were unavoidable and some of which were actively encouraged by KACCAD. Firstly, in Wakiso district there is a higher level of poverty and illiteracy among women therefore they are more likely to benefit from KACCAD’s work in the future. Secondly, it is often the case that surveys such as this ignore the voices of women and focus on men. We wanted to provide the women with an opportunity to speak. Thirdly, out survey was carried out between the hours of 9am-5pm when many of the males in the community were away at work. We did not discriminate against males, and when the opportunity to speak to a male arose we did not turn him away.

Production of the Report

This report will firstly look at KACCAD’s three focus groups: adults in need of functional adult literacy (FAL) programmes, teen mothers (TM), and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). It will discuss the definition of each category, the current trends as illustrated by the survey, and possible changes for the future (also based on results from the survey).The report will then briefly analyse the differences between Ssumbwe and Nakabugo, in order to determine whether the same programmes will suffice for both or whether programmes need to be specialised for each parish. Differences in well-being between the social groups are more pervasive than those that occur geographically, so KACCAD feels it is more important to focus on FAL, TM and OVC over the locations.

Discussion of results based on FAL, TM, OVC

Functional Adult Literacy

Definition of the Category Functional adult literacy (FAL) is the provision of vocational training for adults in order to increase their potential for improved income and quality of life without constant aid from the government and NGOs. A 1996 World Bank Report entitled “The Challenges of Growth and Poverty Eradication” stated that there is a positive correlation between adult literacy and low levels of poverty. In response, the Ugandan government launched a fresh attack on illiteracy and encouraged FAL through the country. The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development, Mr Baryayebwa, wrote recently that “The government should… attack illiteracy nationwide… in order to equip Ugandans with basic literacy and numeracy skills to be better able to participate in development activities”. KACCAD’s survey investigates whether these claims are a) applicable to the Wakiso district and b) still relevant 10 years after the World Bank report was published.

Current Trends

The illiteracy level of our sample was 51.9%, based on the percentage of interviewees who either dropped out of school during primary education or did not attend at all. The gender difference in rate of illiteracy is: 54.3% of women compared to 42.6% of men. There was a larger variance between the different parishes, with a literacy rate of only 43% is Ssumbwe compared to 56% in Nakabugo. The three villages with the lowest literacy rates are all located within Ssumbwe Parish (Ssumbwe, Kikaaya and Bulenga B).

rates_of_illiteracy

50% of people interviewed had dropped out of school at some point during their primary education. One in 10 people had no education at all. Out of those who were lucky enough to reach secondary level education, 85% dropped out before taking their exams and achieving qualifications.

age_of_school_dropouts

People in our sample dropped out of school for a variety of reasons, but the overwhelming majority (68%) had to stop attending due to a lack of school fees. Other reasons given included the death of parents (23%), pregnancy (7%), tradition (2%), illness (1%) and marriage (1%). A number of people gave multiple answers, for example illness had led to a lack of school fees.

In every parish respondents told us that the biggest challenges they currently face in their everyday life are finding an income and paying school fees: out of the 237 people we asked, 77 people said income was their biggest challenge and 63 claimed that the related issue of school fees was their main obstacle to personal development. As the 1996 World Bank report highlighted, there is a strong link between income and education. KACCAD does not wish to suggest that by improving FAL in Wakiso the income and school fees issues will be solved. Yet KACCAD recognises that lack of education is an enormously limiting factor for Wakiso residents. Lack of education limits ones possibility of accessing resources and personal development.

impacts_of_fall

Change for the Future

If given the opportunity, 82% of the sample population would partake in FAL. Out of the 18% that would not continue (or start) education, it was not out of choice. Everyone who did not feel they could return to school gave the reason of either illness or old age. Our results suggest that education would mean a great deal to the community members, as illustrated by the table opposite. The table shows what survey participants hope to gain from education. The category labelled “Provide for Children” refers to the percentage of children who currently lack school fees but would like to attend school if given the opportunity.

 

Teen Mothers

Definition of the Category Teen mothers are a common occurrence in Wakiso District. For the purposes of this report, the ‘teen mother’ group include both current teen mothers and women who were teenagers when they gave birth to their first child. The group includes some of the least privileged and least vocal members of society. They have little independence, limited freedom and are under-represented in many policy debates. They also suffer from restricted access to many development projects. KACCAD aims to represent this marginalised group, as outlined in our organisation mission.

 

Current Trends

Out of the sample population of 184 women, 45% had had their first child while still a teenager. If that percentage is applied to the whole of Wakiso District it can be assumed that there are approximately 112,500 women in Wakiso District who have had their first child (and in many cases first children) before their 20th birthday. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that most teenagers in Wakiso District are behind in their studies – usually due to lack of school fees hindering their progress.

Thus many students have not finished their education by their late teens. Motherhood, even for mothers in their late teens, prevents teens from completing their studies and gaining the essential skills that will lead to a secure income. Without a secure income teen mothers are not able to provide for their children. Thus, their children also are unable to attend school continuing a cycle of poverty.

first_child_birth

These figures are for Kikaaya as a case study of a parish. They are representative of all parishes.

 

monthly_income

Reassuringly, the majority of current teen mothers gave birth to their first child during the end of their teen years. However, monthly income suffers quite clearly, as illustrated by the graph below. The majority of women in Wakiso District currently have no monthly income, regardless of their parental status, but the majority is larger amongst women who have had an early pregnancy.

biggest_challange

“By going back to school I would be able to acquire skills to secure a better income and pay for my children’s education” – Kasozi Nalongo, aged 30, from Kireka

“An education will help me increase my income. I would use the extra money to pay school fees for my children and look after the orphans in the family” – Karifali Namuli, aged 28, from Kikaaya

According to the data, the challenges faced by teen mothers are primarily related to lack of income. 50% of women who either were or are teen mothers claimed that the biggest challenges they face are financial and it is clear from the chart that teen mothers suffer from a lack of set-up capital, employment, education and a lack of support to a greater extent that the population as a whole. It is no coincidence that these four problems persist among teen mothers, as pregnancy is popular cause of high-school drop-out (17 high school drop-outs from our survey were the result of pregnancy), which leaves the women under-skilled and unemployable. Without a job, they do not have the set-up capital require to fulfil their potential. The lack of support exacerbates this problem. The following section will talk in more detail about how this situation can be improved.

Change for the Future

The teen mother group were amongst the most eager to go back to school if given the opportunity. Out of the 67 past and present teen mothers, only two responded that they would not be prepared to partake in further education, and their reasoning was that they were now too old. This displays a huge amount of enthusiasm for self-help on the part of teen-mothers. The impacts of further education and vocational training would be hugely significant for these women. When asked how exactly it would impact their lives, it prompted the most passionate and detailed response, illustrating the extent to which vocational skills provision would be welcomed by the community in Wakiso District, particularly the marginalised groups that KACCAD strive to represent.

Development Responses
Healthcare/HIV/AIDS Support 41
Water supply 36
Schools – for children 29
Electricity 19
Road construction 14
Schools – for adults 8
Small-scale business 8
Sanitation 5
Financial help 4
Farming 4

 

Study Preferences for Teen Mothers Responses
Tailoring 41
Catering 22
Business 18
Any vocational 13
Farming 10
Academic 9
Teaching 5
Computing 4
Professional 4
Hairdressing 4

Importantly, when asked what they would like to study, the teen mother group appeared to have a very clear idea of what skills they would like to learn. These figures suggests that a project involving the provision of tailoring, catering and business skills would be incredibly beneficial to a majority of this group. You will notice that the figures in this table add up to a higher number than the number of teen mothers in the sample. This is because we allowed each interviewee to provide as many possible study preferences as she wanted in order to enable her to voice her desires. When forced to state just one study preference, there is the possibility that an interviewee will (sub-consciously) tactically choose an option that they know a number of other people will have picked in order to raise the number of people asking for the provision of this training and therefore increase pressure. Whilst increased pressure is both necessary and encouraged, it is also important to learn about their true and less altruistic vocations.

The teen mother group did not just request facultative adult education. As we saw from the graph entitled “Biggest challenges”, teen mothers suffer disproportionately from a lack of support. Only four teen mothers (6%) have benefited from government interventions in the past, but one of these government interventions was the universal primary education (UPE) that is promised to the entire population of Uganda. The other three teen mothers received support in the form of a water program, food security program and computer training. The two women that took part in the water and food security programs found them useful, and the woman receiving computer training is still completing her course.

recommended_developments

This lack of governmental and civil support became evident when we asked them about developments they would most like to see in their area in the future. Once more we allowed them to provide as many recommendations as they wished, and the most frequent suggestions were as follows: 41 out 67 women (61%) asked for improved healthcare/HIV/AIDS support, 36 (53%) for an improvement to water supply, 29 (43%) wanted more schools – preferably free or subsidised – for their children, and 19 (28%) asked for electricity supply. These figures are relatively similar to those for the whole sample, with the same four development issues receiving the top four places over the entire sample. However, the overall sample population produced a much more nuanced picture with only 40% asking for improvement to healthcare/HIV/AIDS support.

As you can see from the graph, a higher percentage of teen mothers asked for improved healthcare/HIV/AIDS support, water supply, schools, electricity and infrastructure (all examples of the support they had previously mentioned when discussing their biggest challenges) and a higher proportion of the whole sample asked for help with income-generation such as small-scale businesses, farming and the provision of markets. These results tell us two things. Firstly, teen mothers are not in the position to earn their own money. If they were, they would be asking for help with income-generation just like the rest of the community.

This may be because they are too busy looking after their children or it may be because they lack the self-believe and knowledge of possibilities so they do not even contemplate employment as an option anymore. Sensitisation and information on the capabilities would combat this. Secondly, teen mothers are amongst the most ‘needy’ in the community of Wakiso District. The figures suggest that teen mothers have a proportionately lower level of access to basic amenities such as healthcare/HIV/AIDS support, and water supply. From this finding we can infer that they are among the poorest members of the community – if not in terms of wealth, then in terms of well-being.

Orphaned and Vulnerable Children (OVC)

Definition of the Category

In Wakiso District, there are over 80,000 children living without at least one parent and over 20,000 who have lost both (2002 census). This equates to roughly 16% of all children in the district who have lost at least one parent and 4% who have lost both. The category ‘OVC’ also includes vulnerable children. KACCAD understands vulnerability in this context to mean any child who does not have equal access to the resources necessary for his/her development and capacity to reach their potential. This could include, for example, children who cannot afford to go to school, access health services, children who are the head of their households, and those who care for sick relatives. It is unclear what percentage of these children have lost their parents to HIV/AIDS. With a known HIV/AIDS infection rate nation wide of approximately 7% among adults it can be assumed that the percentage is high (Ministry of Health).

It should be noted that KACCAD’s observation through conduction of the base line survey suggest that many people living with HIV/AIDS in Wakiso District have not received HIV/AIDS testing and counselling let alone medical care through they have clear signs of HIV/AIDS infection. This reality indicates that many HIV/AIDS infections go unrecorded. In fact, nation wide it is estimated that at lease 60% of the population does not know their status (Ministry of Health). Poorest community members often live and die with HIV/AIDS without ever receiving medical care. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is complicated by so many other health and wellbeing issues faced by Wakiso residents making cause of death often ambiguous. Common health issues that complicate HIV/AIDS infection include but are not limited to: malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, whooping cough, cholera, intestinal parasites and other water borne infections caused by contaminated water supplies and malnutrition.

Current Trends

Out of our survey population, 141 (61%) families were living with orphans. The average number of orphans per family (excluding households without orphans) is relatively low: the modal number of orphans per household is one and 48% of all households with orphans have 2 or less. At the other extreme, one family in our survey had 13 orphans in its care and one had 25! Coincidentally, neither of these two households had any income-generating activity and each had only 4 adults to share the task of fending for the many orphans they were responsible for.

It seems that there is little relation between number of orphans in the household and household income. This suggests that orphans do not have a choice of households to reside in after the death of their parents. If they did, they would presumably relocate into households with a higher monthly income and the potential to meet their basic needs. However, while the average monthly income shows little difference, there are slightly fewer households living on no income at all caring for a large number of orphans. This perhaps indicates that orphaned children are taken up by those families that have at least some means of providing for them and securing them a better future.

Mean monthly income H/holds in Ssumbwe H/holds in Nakabugo
H/holds with orphans 42,000 Ugandan shillings ($24.00 US) 26,000 Ugandan shillings ($14.85 US)
H/holds without orphans 43,000 Ugandan shillings ($24.60 US) 28,000 Ugandan shillings ($16.00 US)

 

Number of Orphans Families with income No income
No orphans 59 41
1 orphan 45 55
2 or more orphans 65 35

From our data it is impossible to tell the average number of people under the age of 18, as some under-18s were described as ‘children’, some as ‘dependents’, some as ‘orphans’, and some were placed in two or more of these categories (an orphan may also be described as a dependent, for example). Likewise, some dependents and ‘children’ are actually over 18.

Another indicator of vulnerable children is woman-headed and/or widow-headed households. Just under half of the households surveyed were woman-headed (47%) and 16% were widow-headed. In general, woman-headed households are more vulnerable than male-headed households. There are a number of reasons for this. Firstly, the male is traditionally the main wage earner in Ugandan families. Secondly, in general women in Uganda are less educated and therefore less employable than men. Culturally women are also less inclined and encouraged to do highly manual (and more profitable) labour. It is traditionally more acceptable for women to rise children, grow food for family use, look after the sick, and other household maintenance activities like fetching water and cooking. Tradition paired with lack of skills and limited access to start up funds for small business development makes single mothers and their children at greater risk for extreme poverty. It cannot be assumed that woman-headed households need help over and above all male-headed households, but it is one of many factors that need to be considered when aiming to meet the needs of vulnerable children.

recom_develop_4_areas

Change for the Future

The survey data does not provide explicit information on the desired changes for the future for this particular category, because we did not speak directly to OVCs. In many cases they were too young and in other instances they were simply too shy: the answers were only provided on prompts from either us or their guardians. There was a danger that results could be skewed in favour of the ideas provided by the various Local Council chairmen and interviewers, so in order to avoid manipulated results we have omitted them from the report. Instead, we will examine the information provided by the spokespeople for households with orphans. We have chosen to use this information as an indicator because the changes desired by families with responsibility for orphans are likely to be in the best interests of the children in question.

iga

These respondents had similar recommended developments as the total sample population, with a few anomalies such as a higher demand for electricity and infrastructure. Again, healthcare/HIV/AIDS support was the most stated need. Healthcare/HIV/AIDS support appears to be lacking throughout each sector of the community in Wakiso District.

areas-of-study

The recommended IGAs are primarily based around farming and small-scale businesses. Over 80% of families raising OVC advocated for poultry farming as a suitable IGA for the area. Over half felt that small-scale businesses and livestock farming would also be advisable. KACCAD can help these IGAs become realised for many of these families by extending its farming rotation scheme and by providing vocational training in business skills such as home economics, accounting and so on. KACCAD looks forward to acquiring more support for this expansion.

It is interesting that whilst only 5% of these households believed tailoring to be a worthwhile IGA, over 50% wanted to study it. Similarly, catering does not appear among the recommended IGAs but it is relatively popular as an area of study. These discrepancies suggest that the majority of the people questioned do not appreciate that there is a link between study and income. It is likely that this is not a misunderstanding of the aims of education; it is simply that for most people in the area – even those who complete university degrees – qualifications do not result in employment. Therefore, it would appear that study preferences are not only based on desire to secure employment or self-employment in a specific sector but also on desire to learn skills for household use.

Discussion of results, broken down into Parishes

The current situation

As mentioned earlier, Ssumbwe is the larger of the two parishes covered by the survey. 79% of our sample population was made up of Ssumbwe residents compared to only 21% from Nakabugo. As a result, the figures relating to Ssumbwe have a much lower deviation from the mean for the total sample population in almost all cases. However, it is necessary to briefly outline a series of instances where the trends within Ssumbwe do differ significantly from the total sample population.

household_type

A number of these deviations suggest that well-being and quality of life in Ssumbwe is higher than that in Nakabugo. Firstly, in Ssumbwe there is a slightly higher proportion of nuclear families and slightly fewer woman- or widow-headed households (19% and 47% respectively in Ssumbwe compared to 26% and 52% in Nakabugo). Secondly, the proportion of the sample population aged 30-50 (the age group that is generally responsible for bringing in most income and providing both economic and social welfare for the dependents in the household) was 40% in Ssumbwe, which is much higher than the Nakabugo figure of just 29%. Thirdly, the proportion of the adult population without children is twice as high in Ssumbwe as it is in Nakabugo. As far as monthly income is concerned, Nakabugo suffers from a larger proportion of households that simply have no monthly income at all. The average monthly income of all those households that do have an income generating activity is much lower in Nakabugo (approximately 24,000 Ugandan shillings) than in Ssumbwe (approximately 50,000 Ugandan shillings). However, it should be noted that this figure is offset by the fact that the average monthly income in Ssumbwe zone is 63,700 Ugandan shillings and that figure is itself offset by one or two households that earn over 200,000 shillings per month.

dependents

These trends do not necessarily translate into a higher quality of life for the Ssumbwe population. While adults in Ssumbwe have fewer children of their own than their Nakabugo counterparts, the household in Ssumbwe has a higher mean number of dependents, suggesting that there are either higher numbers of orphans or higher numbers of adults without an income generating activity. There is also a higher rate of teen pregnancy in Ssumbwe, so although there are fewer children in that Parish, they are being born into households that may not have the facilities to care for and provide for them. Consequently, the school drop-out rate in Ssumbwe is higher than in Nakabugo.

The Future

There are a number of differences between Ssumbwe and Nakabugo regarding the desired developments, recommended IGAs and general hopes for the future of the population of each Parish. In Ssumbwe, where the general standard of living is ‘high’ enough that the majority of households are no longer fighting for survival, attention is beginning to turn towards education. Most adults in the area are illiterate. The proportion of adults in Ssumbwe with “insufficient education” is twice that of Nakabugo and the proportion of adults claiming that they could and would return to school if they had the chance is of a similar pattern.

With fewer children to look after, they are more concerned about income, set-up capital and learning new skills in Ssumbwe. This is not to say that the residents of Nakabugo do not want to gain new skills and create a brighter future for themselves. They certainly do. However, in Nakabugo, there are more children to look after and lower monthly income rates so many households simply do not feel that returning to school is an option. Ironically, the lower monthly income rates indicate that it is just as important, if not more so, that the residents of Nakabugo gain new vocational skills.

parish_dev

Both Parishes and entire District see the provision of healthcare/HIV/AIDS support as equally important and equally lacking at present in their areas. It was the most popular response to the question “what developments would you most like to see in your area”, with 42% of both Parishes citing it as an important contribution to quality of life.

The second most common recommended development was an improved water supply. Many households are without access to a water pump, and the nearest water hole is often kilometres away with water of a poor quality. An example photo of one of the water sources in Ssumbwe where a child of 9 years carries a 20ltr jerry can for such a long distance shown here.Electricity was important to the people of Ssumbwe to a much higher extent than the people of Nakabugo, but unfortunately electricity supply is outside the scope of a small grassroots organisation such as KACCAD. However, due to its perceived importance we will support, in any way we can, other initiatives that may pursue the provision of electricity as a goal.

Evaluation Ideology

Key observations:

  • By using both English and Ugandan volunteers to design the survey, it was possible to bring together diverse skills and ideas. The end result was a survey that was technically accurate, highly understandable to the interviewees and heavily focused on our objectives.
  • Due to the amount of time we devoted to the planning stage, the survey was planned in meticulous detail. We had time to carry out pilot surveys to ensure it was as effective as possible, a luxury not often afforded by voluntary efforts.
  • Even though we had carried out the pilot survey there were some unavoidable areas of confusion that became apparent over time. The problem areas were questions 6, 12, 13 and 14 (see appendix). When defining family status, some respondents would write that it was a “woman-headed” households while other would write that it was a “widow-headed” household, even though both families were living in a situation where the woman was the head because the man of the house had died. The confusion over questions 12, 13 and 14 arose primarily from the fact that some respondents would define a daughter who’s father had died as both their own child, an orphan and dependent, while other respondents would only place her in one category. We were able to overcome these problems for the most part due to the presence of the Local Council chairmen who knew the household set-ups and was able to correct mistakes.

Methodology

Key observations:

  • We were able to use the Local Chairmen to take us to the most needy and marginalised members of their constituencies, which was a great benefit to us. However, it is important that we do not ignore the potential problems involved in this. Firstly, it entails placing a great deal of trust on the Local Council chairmen to take us to the most marginalised. Secondly, it is questionable whether the most marginalised members of the community will be recognised by the Local Council chairman, even if he means well and is doing his job as best he can. Thirdly, there is likely to be a political dimension to the Local Council Chairman’s selection of households i.e. the possibility that we will be taken to the places where he most needs votes and support. We do not suggest in any way that this would have been done of purpose by the Local Council chairman. Rather, they are unavoidable biases that, unfortunately, we have to recognise.
  • In the Ssumbwe Parish our presence caused quite a stir, and we were lucky enough to have people approach us and ask to be interviewed, thus decreasing the amount of time wasted walking from house to house and increasing the number of people we could interview. This was fantastic for us, as we managed to get a truly representational idea of the standards of living and typical problems faced by Ssumbwe residents. However, it also meant that we were less selective and therefore perhaps spoke to fewer of the most marginalised members of the community in Ssumbwe than in Nakabugo. This makes it difficult to compare between parishes. However, the results seemed to equal themselves out over the two parishes, indicating that it did not have a highly influential effect.
  • In some cases it was necessary that the interviewees and other family members prompted the respondent in order to attain an answer. This occurred most often when interviewing young girls (teen mothers in particular) as they were understandably shy. It is likely that the presence of a foreigner and the use of technology such as voice recorder and digital camera did not help, as they were new and probably somewhat scary to younger people who had not come across either before. In order to combat this, we stopped filming when it was causing distress and each KACCAD member introduced themselves in Luganda to every single interviewee.

Bibliography and acknowledgementsWebsites www.wakiso.co.ug www.ubos.org (Uganda Bureau of Statistics website) www.who.int

We would like to extend our special thanks to Eng. Ian Kyeyune Wakiso District LC V Chairman for his continued support of KACCAD, Mr Stephen Ssemutumba of BUVAD_2000 for the time and skills he provided for the survey, Mr Steven Ntege and Mr Henry Ssekibuule for their moral support throughout the process and to the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, for providing the financial support that allowed Claire McCarroll to travel to Uganda to work with KACCAD towards this goal.We would also like to thank all the Local Council chairmen of Kikaaya, Bulenga ‘B’, Bulenga ‘A’, Ssumbwe, Kireka, Nakuwadde, Nakabugo, Bulaga and Councillor Luboyera Robert who gave up their precious time and all the interviewees who provided us with the information that we required.Last but not least, a huge thank you to everyone in the Kyosiga Community whose continued support for KACCAD provides us with the motivation to carry on working towards our goals.God bless.Appendix:

The survey questions

A) personal information 1. Name 2. Title 3. Age 4. Male/female 5. Marital status 6. Family status 7. head of family 8. No. of adults 9. Education of adults 10. No. of children 11. Education of children 12. No. of dependents… 13. … of which are orphans 14. … of which are own children 15. Ages of own children 16. Main income-generating activity (IGA) 17. Other IGAs 18. Monthly income

b) Education 19. Have you attended school before? 20. to which level? 21. Did you complete your education? 22. If no, for what reason did you stop?

c) Basic needs 23. What challenges do you currently face in your everyday life? 24. Have you had any government intervention programs in your area? 25. If yes, what types? 26. Did you attend? 27. If yes, was it useful? 28. If no, why did you not attend? 29. Do you desire for similar interventions in your area? 30. Do you feel you have sufficient education to meet your desires?

d) Future development 31. Do you feel you could make it back to school if given the opportunity? 32. If yes, what difference would it make? 33. If no, for what reason would you not make it? 34. What kind of IGAs would you recommend for your area? 35. What kind of developments would you like to see in your area? 36. What would you like to study as an adult?